Difference between revisions of "Gunnery 101"

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*Damage/ROF Modules
*Damage/ROF Modules
Gyrostabilizers, Heat Sinks, and Magnetic Field Stabilizers are low-slot modules that give you a bonus to damage and a bonus to rate of fire, which is super awesome. Remember the rate of fire will increase capacitor use for energy and hybrid turrets.  They are all stacking penalized, so fitting more than say 3 or 4 is probably not worth it unless you have nothing else to put there. It's important to fit the right module for your guns!  If you fit heat sinks on a ship with hybrid turrets, for example, they are completely pointless. And you end up looking really stupid on your inevitable loss-mail, like this poor fool: [http://eve-kill.net/?a=kill_detail&kll_id=18991844 http://eve-kill.net/?a=kill_detail&kll_id=18991844]
Gyrostabilizers, Heat Sinks, and Magnetic Field Stabilizers are low-slot modules that give you a bonus to damage and a bonus to rate of fire, which is super awesome. Remember the rate of fire will increase capacitor use for energy and hybrid turrets.  They are all stacking penalized, so fitting more than say 3 or 4 is probably not worth it unless you have nothing else to put there. It's important to fit the right module for your guns!  If you fit heat sinks on a ship with hybrid turrets, for example, they are completely pointless, and you end up looking really stupid on your inevitable loss-mail.
* Tracking Enhancer
* Tracking Enhancer

Latest revision as of 07:03, 21 December 2018

This is a deprecated class syllabus, intended as historical record for the teaching department.

Creating syllabi is no longer our process for new classes, and no classes in the syllabus library are considered current. They are here for historical purposes only, as well as an optional starting point for designing new classes. Please do not assume any of the classes you find here have slides, or have even been taught for many years. If you do use information in a syllabus, ensure that you have brought it up to date with contemporary EVE.

This is a class syllabus. For general information, see Gunnery Guide.

Class Information

General Information

Illustration link for class description on the Eve University forum: 470px-BB61_USS_Iowa_BB61_broadside_USN.jpg or Rainbowlazorz.jpg

Gunnery 101 is to help teach new players all the intricacies of use turrets to make bad ships go boom. Topics to be covered include turret types, sizes and levels; along with tracking, signature resolution, and other gunnery mathematical values.


  • Duration: 90 minutes - 2 hours
  • Location: Docked up safely in a station

Class contents:

  • Racial Turrets
  • Sizes and varieties of turrets & ammunition
  • Signature resolution & signature radius
  • Optimal & falloff
  • Angular velocity & tracking
  • Gunnery Skills
  • Weapon Upgrade Modules

Student requirements:

  • Mumble registration and access - make sure you have Mumble sorted out and operational well before the class begins. Use this guide for set-up: http://wiki.eveuniversity.org/Mumble
  • Access to the Class.E-UNI in-game chat channel

Additional information: This class is primarily lecture delivered in the Class.E-UNI channel in Mumble, followed by Q&A.

Notes for the Teacher

Required materials:

  • Class.E-UNI chat channel, to receive questions and post relevant links
  • The class slideshow: http://eveuni.org/gunnery101 or http://gdurl.com/w2VQ/viewer. Note the slideshow does not include every single piece of information on this wiki page - it is meant as a complement to listening to the class, not a replacement. If you notice any errors on the slideshow, or out-to-date information, or have an idea about something that should be added, please forum-PM Kivena.
  • List any relevant links to teacher's references on the wiki or other resources, if needed
  • Describe any ships, fittings, modules, or tools required to have on hand, if needed
  • http://www.hostile.dk/files/eve/eve-tracking101.swf

Possibly useful videos:

Class Contents


Welcome to this class on Gunnery 101!

This course is designed for anyone who uses any sort of turret based weapon at all. Period. Over the 2 hours or so, we shall cover......

(Instructor should then introduce himself or herself - covering relevant experience level and background.)

We have a few ground rules for this class:

  • Please put your Mumble settings on "Push to Talk" if you have not already done so.
  • Feel free to type any questions in the Class.E-UNI chat channel as we proceed - I will try to answer your questions as they come during the class. [At the end of my lecture, we'll open Mumble for any further questions or general discussion.]
  • You should be [docked up safely in a station, or located....]
  • There's a slideshow that goes with this class, i'll put the link into the chat channel: http://eveuni.org/gunnery101 (or http://gdurl.com/w2VQ/viewer)

Everyone ready? OK, then - let's begin....

Racial Turrets

There are three different types of turret: hybrid, projectile, and energy (aka laser) turrets.

There are two different range categories in each type: short-range turrets and long-range turrets.

There are also four different sizes of each of these turrets: small, medium, large, and capital.

This gives a grand total of 24 different sorts of turret, and that's before you get into the meta and tech varations of each sort. So there are a lot of turrets. But they all function in a very similar way.

Projectile turrets are mostly used by Minmatar and Angel Cartel ships. They are known as autocannons and artillery cannons, and they don't need capacitor to function, which is a very useful benefit. They use projectile ammunition to fire, and they can change their damage type between all four of EM, Thermal, Kinetic and Explosive. It takes 10 seconds to reload a projectile weapon.

Energy weapons, or lasers, tend to be used by Amarr and Sansha, although Blood Raiders can fit them too. They come in Pulse Laser and Beam Laser designations, and do EM and Thermal damage. As somebody once said, "pulse lasers go pew pew pew, whilst beam lasers go bzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzp" http://omgrawr.net/quote/3933. They require capacitor to fire, and quite a lot of it too. They also use frequency crystals as ammunition, although one crystal will last a very long time, so you don't need very many of them. You can change crystals instantly, they have no reload time.

Hybrid weapons are generally used by the Gallente and Caldari, although the Caldari use missiles more than hybrids. Short range hybrids are called blasters, whilst long range are called railguns. They only do Thermal and Kinetic damage. They also require a small amount of capacitor to fire, but reloading takes only 5 seconds instead of the 10 seconds on projectiles.

All of these weapons are described in detail on the wiki's Turrets page.

Turret Sizes

Turrets also come in four broad sizes; small, medium, large and capital. Small are frigate sized, are commonly found on frigates and destroyers, have the shortest range, lowest DPS, and best tracking. Medium are the cruiser sized guns, found on cruisers and battlecruisers. Larges are the big guns, and are found on battleships. They've got the best range, highest damage, and worst tracking of the three. Typically you'll fit the appropriately sized gun on your ship; there are a very few niche cases where using an undersized gun (small gun on a cruiser) works, but it's very rare.

Capital turrets are found on dreadnoughts and titans. They're massive and do correspondingly massive amounts of damage, but have such a minuscule tracking speed that if the target is not stationary, they probably can't hit it.

Turret Ranges

Each type of turret has a short-range type and a long-range type. The short-range weapons have a short range (obviously), but good overall DPS and good tracking. The long-range weapons have a much bigger range, and a much bigger damage per shot, but they have less overall DPS and much worse tracking.

Short-range turrets

Autocannons, pulse lasers and blasters are the short-range weapon types, and the table on page 4 of the slideshow shows the differences between them. This is a slightly edited-down screenshot from EVEMon, removing some of the irrelevant attributes. In this case we are comparing the heaviest weapons from the medium category (the ones that fit on cruisers).

You can see that pulse lasers have easily the best range, although the falloff range of the autocannons goes some way to make up for that (we'll talk about falloff later). Hybrids have the highest damage modifier, and also the highest tracking speed, so they do the most damage. Autocannons have the easiest fitting requirements, needing the least PG and CPU.

This image also gives you a rough idea of the comparative damage outputs of each weapon type: (link in chat) NcNDXLF.png You can see that blasters do easily the most damage, but have the shortest range. Pulse lasers and projectile weapons do a similar level of damage, but where projectile damage falls off slowly over a long range, pulse lasers do their maximum damage a bit further out but then fall off quickly.

This is one reason why Minmatar ships are pretty good at kiting - their autocannon damage remains the highest at long ranges.

Long-range turrets

Artillery cannons, beam lasers and railguns are the long-range weapon types, with the table on page 5 of the slideshow showing the differences. Again it compares the heaviest medium weapons in each type. Remember these long-range guns do less overall DPS than their short-range types.

Optimal and falloff are much greater for these than the short-range types, but all of them have much lower tracking. They all also need more power grid and CPU to fit than the short-range varieties.

It's more difficult to show you a graph for these like for the short-range guns, as many of the differences lie in the tracking, rate of fire and the alpha strike damage. If you want the highest alpha strike, artillery is the way to go, but they have a much slower rate of fire to compensate. Beam lasers have a quite good alpha and easily the best tracking of all these. Railguns have the best range, a similar DPS to beam lasers, but less tracking.

Projectile Turrets

Projectile turrets are ranked by shell calibre size. So in the small category you have 125mm, 150mm and 200mmm autocannons, and 250mm and 280mm artillery. All these small projectiles take the same small Tech 1 projectile ammunition**.

As you go up in calibre, the guns increase in:

  • damage modifier (including overall damage)
  • optimal range
  • falloff
  • powergrid & CPU requirements

And they start to lose:

  • rate of fire (although this isn't enough to offset a total increase in DPS)
  • tracking speed

Additionally in each of these calibre guns you'll also get different Meta level versions of turret: levels 1 to 4, plus of course the Tech 2 version. These always have distinctive names, so that you can tell what meta level turret you have without having to check. For projectiles, the names of each of the meta levels are:

  • 425mm Carbine Repeating Cannon
  • 425mm Gallium Machine Gun
  • 425mm Prototype Automatic Cannon
  • 425mm "Scout" Autocannon

Occasionally the words are changed around a bit, but the important part is the first word and indicated on the slideshow. In general, and this goes for all types of turret, you want to fit the best meta gun that you can afford, once you've selected a particular gun size (by which I mean both small/med/large, but also size within those brackets - 650s for instance). Usually the damage modifier and rate of fire is increased by about 5% as you go up a meta level. Each category of gun also has the Tech 2 version.

Tech 2 turrets are really very very good, and this goes for all three types of turret. Firstly, because they can use Tech 2 ammunition, which provides all sorts of benefits that I'll go into in a minute. Secondly they gain the benefit of a specialization skill, that gives a benefit to T2 turrets only, so they do more DPS than the Meta 4 turrets anyway. Finally they are usually cheaper than the Meta4 turrets. You should certainly be using Tech 2 turrets if you fly a Tech 2 ship - the training time for T2 turrets is shorter, and will improve your effectiveness more than the T2 ship (which are usually quite specialized in their roles).

** if anyone asks how the same ammo fits in different calibre guns, the answer is either :ccp:, magic, or Sabot

Projectile Ammunition

The best thing about projectile ammunition is that you can switch your damage type, the only turret that can do this. Need to hit with EM? Switch to EMP. Need to hit with thermal? Switch to Phased Plasma. Fusion provides the same benefit for explosive damage. Only kinetic doesn't have a dedicated high-damage projectile ammo type, but Titanium Sabot comes close.

EMP, Fusion and Phased Plasma are the three most commonly used ammo types because of their high damage, but it's important to note they also halve your optimal range. The other ammo types have longer ranges or increased tracking, both of which can be useful.

The interesting stuff happens in the Tech 2 ammunition. Barrage and Hail are the two T2 ammunition types for T2 autocannons only. Barrage is especially useful, as it does high damage and dramatically increases your falloff range, which is very important for projectile weapons that have a significant falloff range already, if you remember the graph I linked a bit earlier. Unfortunately it does nerf your tracking, so it's not all good news. Barrage tends to be used when high ranges are required, such as kiting ships.

Hail is only used if you are up close and nearly stationary, because of its even bigger tracking speed nerf. If you're sat right next to your target and both stationary, then it will do amazing damage - otherwise, the tracking nerf and falloff nerf makes it not very good.

Artillery T2 ammo is actually not that often used, because of its various drawbacks. One short range (Quake) but gives you extra tracking, one long range (Tremor) but reduces your tracking. Tremor can be used by snipers if your target is hardly moving, whereas Quake can be used effectively at close ranges (but at that range you should just fit autocannons instead).

When you fly projectile turret ships, it's usually worth carrying around a selection of ammo. EMP, Fusion, Phased Plasma and Barrage are what I usually take, plus Hail if I'm in a larger ships (BC or BS).

Energy Turrets

Unfortunately there is not really any consistent naming convention in either pulse lasers or beam lasers. You just have to check which one is larger and which one is lighter when you buy or fit them. To make matters worse, the biggest medium lasers are actually called 'heavy', thus causing many people to think they are heavy battleship-grade turrets.

Again, as with projectiles, as you get heavier weapons the overall damage increases, range increases, but tracking a and rate of fire decrease. Fitting requirements are obviously greater for heavier weapons as well.

The different meta levels are named like this, with the important words on the slides highlighted again.

  • Heavy Afocal Pulse Maser
  • Heavy Modal Pulse Laser
  • Heavy Anode Pulse Particle Stream
  • Heavy Modulated Pulse Energy Beam

This reveals yet another source of confusion in energy turret names, because meta 4 pulse lasers also have the word beam in their titles.

Just like projectiles, the huge advantages of tech 2 lasers are tech 2 frequency crystals - especially Scorch, added specialization skill and a relatively cheap cost.

Frequency Crystals

Laser turrets can only ever do EM and thermal damage, but frequency crystals allow to you alter how much of each you put out. There are various different types that vary damage type and amount, range, and capacitor requirements.

Multifrequency is the commonly used basic crystal because of its damage, but Radio has a long range bonus for sniping (but low damage) and Standard, Infrared and Ultraviolet have useful help-I'm-running-out-of-cap-but-need-to-keep-firing bonuses to capacitor.

It's definitely worth knowing that basic T1 crystals will never shatter. You only need one per turret. Tech 2 and faction crystals will shatter eventually, usually after a hundred shots or so, so carry several of these crystals.

Tech 2 pulse laser crystals are where the fun really starts - Scorch is simply the best thing since sliced bread, and Conflagration isn't too bad either. Scorch makes your pulse lasers effective at ranges approaching beam lasers, whilst still doing excellent damage. It does have a tracking speed penalty, and a significant one too, so you need to be aware of this and not use it on fast moving targets.

Conflagration does great damage, but increases your capacitor use and reduces your tracking. So like the autocannon's Hail ammo, use it for shooting big things at close range.

T2 beam lasers crystals act very similarly to artillery T2 ammo. One gives extra range and worse tracking, the other gives extra tracking and worse range.

Hybrid Turrets

Hybrids weapons come in two distinct types, blasters and rail guns, which both work very differently, and have different naming conventions. Rail guns, the long range version, can be easily distinguished as they use the same calibre size naming convention, like projectiles. A larger calibre size is a bigger heavier gun.

Blasters are always called electron, ion, and neutron, as there are always three in each size category. Apart from being in alphabetical order from smallest to largest, scientists might remember them because neutrons are heavier than electrons, so the electron blaster is the lightest and the neutron blaster is the heaviest (an ion doesn't have a specific weight, so that doesn't really help).

Blasters and railguns don't have the same naming convention as each other. Blaster meta levels are named like this:

  • Regulated Light Neutron Phase Cannon
  • Limited Light Neutron Blaster
  • Anode Light Neutron Particle Cannon
  • Modal Light Neutron Particle Accelerator

Whilst the railguns are named like this:

  • 200mm Carbide Railgun
  • 200mm 'Scout' Accelerator Cannon
  • 200mm Compressed Coil Gun
  • 200mm Prototype Gauss

Note that Tech 2 railguns are called 'Scout', the same as the meta 4 projectile weapons, which causes much confusion.

Blasters have the highest damage of any regular weapon type, but the shortest range, whilst rail guns are rather the reverse - they have the longest range, but don't do as much damage as either beams or artillery.

As with energy or projectile weapons, Tech 2 hybrid turrets are really good for the same reasons. Training T2 hybrids is very worthwhile.

Hybrid Charges

Hybrid charges only ever do thermal and kinetic damage. They use ammunition like projectiles, but the various ammo types only give you changes in damage, range, and capacitor use.

Most people will pack Antimatter for blasters, and to some degree for railguns, due to its high damage, even though it reduces your optimal range even further.

When it comes to Tech 2 ammunition, blasters have a ranging-decreasing option (Void) and a range-increasing option (Null). Unfortunately they both have rather damaging tracking penalties, which means many people still use Antimatter (or to be more accurate, faction Antimatter). But if you can keep a low angular velocity - fit a web to help with this - then Void can be very effective, and Null will extend your engagement range.

Railguns often use the Spike T2 ammunition to increase their range even further, and obtain truly impressive strikes at extreme ranges. If you find yourself up close with railguns, use Javelin to help with damage and tracking.

Signature Resolution

(slideshow page 12)

Every ship has a signature radius, which you can find in the Show Info on a ship, which tells you roughly how big the ship is. A large ship will have a large signature radius than a small ship. Frigates have signature radii of about 30 to 40 metres, cruisers about 80-150m, and battleships about 350-500m. The signature radius affects three things: how fast you can target lock it, how much damage missiles will do to it, and how easily a gun turret can hit it.

Turrets also have a signature resolution, which you can find in the Show Info - note that the best way to check these sorts of stats is from a loaded turret whilst in space - this way, the values reported take into account the ammunition loaded and your skills and any ship bonuses. Small turrets have a signature resolution of 40 metres, medium have 125m, and large turrets have 400mm.

The signature resolution tells you what size of object the guns will reliably hit if the target's traversal velocity is lower or equal to the guns' tracking speed. A small signature resolution means a turret can track small targets fast and can hit them reliably. A large gun with a large signature resolution tracks targets smaller than this number slower, and thus will have more difficulty hitting a smaller target (especially since they will usually keep high traversal velocity, which further decreases the chance of hitting). The pictures on page 12 of the slideshow should help visualize this.

The smaller your signature resolution is compared to your target's signature radius, the easier time you will have hitting the target. This is one reason why battleships have trouble hitting small frigates.

If both you and your target are stationary, and within your optimal range, then you will always hit a stationary target, because the gun does not have to track at all to hit.

Story time: when I was a newbie, and just trained up my shiny new interceptor (T2 tackle frigate), I was sitting on a gate waiting for a target to come through so I could catch it. A Rokh (Caldari battleship with bonuses to range) appeared on grid about 150km away, and just sat there. I knew it could be a sniper, and indeed he yellow-boxed me just then, but because I was in a tiny frigate and he was in a battleship, and I knew about the sig resolution of big guns compared to sig radius of small frigs, I didn't think he posed a danger.

Suddenly the yellow-box went red, all my alarms went off, and I was in 70% structure! I got out of there as fast as I could, before he could shoot me again. I thought he must have been extremely lucky to hit me, but to be sure I did some research into guns and how they work.

As it turns out, sig radius and sig resolution are only relevant when at least one participant is moving - that is, when angular velocity is not zero. Since we were both sitting still, and I was presumably within his optimal range, he was guaranteed to hit me.

And this is why frigates do not sit still in space. Sniping battleships will one-shot them, and they can't miss.

Falloff and Optimal

(slideshow page 13)

If you look on the next page of the slideshow, page 13, you can see a graph of that guaranteed hit chance.

The optimal range is the range within which your guns will always hit their target, assuming you and your target are completely stationary.

Falloff is another attribute to turrets, which defines how quickly your chance to hit falls off after you reach optimal range - if you add falloff to optimal, that is the range at which you have exactly a 50% chance to hit.

A short falloff distance (like pulse lasers) means your chance to hit drops off quickly, a large falloff range (like autocannons) means it drops off very slowly over a large distance.

When you reach a distance of optimal plus 2 times falloff, your theoretical chance to hit is only 6.25%, so you need to be very lucky to hit at that range.

Clearly it is best to fight within optimal range of your guns. Some turret types, especially autocannons, are quite happy within optimal plus falloff range, as their damage is high and their falloff is very large (and their tracking speeds mean that being closer in is not an option). You may have heard the term "fighting in falloff" in reference to autocannons - because they have such a small optimal but a very big falloff, they frequently fight in falloff range.

Tracking & Angular Velocity

** note: some people might mention transversal velocity here. Angular velocity is transversal divided by range to target, and since you can now put angular velocity itself on the overview (a long time ago you couldn't) talking about transversal is a pretty needless overcomplication and would probably only serve to confuse people.

(slideshow page 14)

One of the toughest concepts for new players to grasp, but very important, is tracking speed.

Again a property of your turret and found in Show Info, it is measured in radians per second, and is how quickly your turret can rotate to track a fast moving target. Smaller guns have faster tracking speeds, and can track round faster to shoot fast moving targets. Bigger guns have lower tracking speeds and can have trouble hitting fast moving targets. As always, check this info on your guns whilst in space - then it takes into account ammunition, ship bonuses & your skills.

You can also put angular velocity in a column on your overview. This is the same attribute as on your turret, again in radians per second, measuring how fast an object is moving around you. Here's an example overview aiXUjca.png with actual velocity, angular velocity and radial velocity columns.

Your damage doesn't suddenly drop off if your guns can no longer track the target fast enough, just like your damage doesn't suddenly disappear when you move out of optimal range - like falloff, your damage will drop off slowly as your target increases it's angular velocity. Remember signature resolution versus signature radius from early? This is where it comes back into the equation.

There is a graph on page 14 of the slideshow with three lines on it.

The blue line in the middle shows the case when your turret's signature resolution equals your target's signature radius (that is, frigate vs frigate or cruiser vs cruiser combat; when your turret and your target is equally matched in size). Your damage slowly drops off as angular velocity increases, until the point at which your turret tracking equals the angular velocity of your target, when your chance to hit is now 50%.

The green line indicates the case when you are shooting something bigger than you, for example a frigate shooting a cruiser or a cruiser shooting a battleship. In this case the extra signature resolution advantage of your guns goes a long way to making up for angular velocity. Even if your angular velocity is twice the tracking of your turret, you still have a good chance to hit the target because of your small signature resolution.

The red line indicates the case when you are shooting something smaller than you, for example a cruiser shooting a frigate. Your signature resolution is large, and that is a big disadvantage because your chance to hit drops off pretty quick even if your guns can track fast enough. It also shows how difficult it is for a battleship to shoot a fast moving frigate - large guns can't track fast enough, and large guns have a big signature resolution, both of which combine to make it extremely unlikely for a battleship to hit a frigate that is moving fast around it.

If you're having difficulty understanding this, then I recommend a live-fire exercise in space with a trusted partner, using different size ships and experimenting with different ammunition and different orbital speeds.

In EVE, if your target has an angular velocity of X, then you also have the same angular velocity from his point of view. In EVE the targeter and the targetee experience the same angular velocity in relation to one another, which is worth knowing. If you can track him, he can probably track you too.

Turret Damage Equation

(slideshow page 15)(

The graphs on the previous pages were obtained by putting the equation on page 15 of the slideshow into a spreadsheet and then using some reasonable example values. This equation was determined by experimentation, a long time ago by various different people. You might see it in various slightly different formats, but they are all the same. This is the chance to hit equation used by EVE.

The mathematicians amongst you will understand why signature radius is irrelevant when angular velocity is zero.

When anybody fires a turret in EVE, the game will generate a random number between zero and one, and compare it to the chance to hit determined from this equation (using all the values at the time of firing the turret). If the randomly-generated number is less than the chance to hit, your turret has successfully hit.

The amount of damage a turret will do is not a fixed value. It starts off as total damage from ammunition, multiplied by the turret's damage modifier value. If the randomly-generated number happened to be less than 0.01 - which is a 1% chance - then it was a perfect shot. The text you see in your combat log will say strikes perfectly, wrecking for X damage. In this case, your damage done is tripled.

If it wasn't a perfect shot, then 0.49 is added to that randomly generated number, which results in a value between 0.5 and 1.49. Your damage is multiplied by this value, which is the damage done by the shot. This range has various different words used to describe it in the combat log, which you can see on the slideshow page 15 - you might recognise some of these if you've done a lot of turret shooting before.

Because the amount of damage you do is related to your chance to hit, the better your chance to hit is the more likely you are to do higher levels of damage. If you watch your combat log whilst shooting you can work out your rough chance to hit. If you see nothing but misses, "barely scratches" and "hits lightly", then that shows your chance to hit is less than 25%. "Well aimed" shots will only occur when your chance to hit is over 50%, and if you see some "excellent" shots occurring you know you have a very good chance to hit.


Gunnery Skills

(slideshow page 16)

Gunnery: Lets pilots fire their guns faster - provides a 2% per level bonus to rate of fire. It's worth mentioning here that the bonus is actually -2% reduction in turret duration, which because of the way maths works is better than a +2% bonus to damage done. Bonuses that increase rate of fire are generally better than those that increase damage done, although they will obviously cause you to use more ammo, or more capacitor if your guns use cap.

Gunnery is also a basic prerequisite for all the rest of the turret skills on this page, and for many weapon upgrade modules.

There are 9 different <size> <type> Turret skills, which I'll call the Tech 1 turret skills. Three for each turret type, and three for each size of turret. For example, Small Hybrid Turrets, or Large Projectile Turrets. Small turrets are a rank 1 skill, so they don't take very long to train, but Medium turrets are rank 3 and Large are rank 5. These skills are required to use the relevant turret type, but they also increase the damage of that turret by 5% per level.

There are also two Tech 2 turret skills, called Specialization skills, for every one of the previous Turret skills. For example, once you've trained Small Energy Turrets to level 5, you can then train Small Pulse Laser Specialization and Small Beam Laser Specialization in order to use small Tech 2 laser turrets. These have an even longer training time than their related Tech 1 turret skill. As well as unlocking the Tech 2 turrets, they also provide a boost in damage to those Tech 2 turrets - if you train it to IV, it's an 8% damage increase, which is a lot compared to a Tech 1 turret.

Energy Turret (Small, Medium, Large): Pulse Laser and Beam Laser Specializations

Hydrid Turret (Small, Medium, Large): Blaster and Railgun Specializations

Projectile (Small, Medium, Large): Autocannon and Artillery Specializations

Motion Prediction: Allows for better tracking of targets, improves turret tracking speed by 5% per level. This is one of the most important gunnery support skills, as we've already seen how important it is to keep your angular velocity low in comparison to your tracking. It is also needed to unlock some of the Tech 2 turret Specialization skills.

Sharpshooter: a simple 5% to optimal range bonus per level, enabling you to shoot farther. It is also needed to unlock some of the Tech 2 turret Specialization skills.

Rapid Firing: This one doesn't unlock anything, but it does give you -4% to rate of fire (which equates to a 5% increase to DPS). It's a very big bonus, and well worth training up to at least 4 or 5. It will cause energy and hybrid turrets to use more capacitor.

Trajectory Analysis: critically important for projectile weapons, this improves turret falloff by 5% per level, which will seriously increase your effective range with projectiles. Not as much of a massive range upgrade for hybrids or lasers, but still worth training.

Surgical Strike: a simple +3% to damage per level of all turrets. Sure, it's good, but all the rest of the support skills here are probably more important.

Controlled Bursts: reduces capacitor needs of Hybrids and Lasers by 5% per level. This is a very important skill for Amarr and Gallente gunnery pilots. It's entirely irrelevant for projectile weapon users.

Two other important skills not mentioned on the slideshow (page 16) are Weapon Upgrades and Advanced Weapon Upgrades.

Weapon Upgrades: decreases CPU weapon requirements by 5% per level. Very important when trying to fit bigger guns. Level V is a prerequisite for Advanced Weapon Upgrades.

Advanced Weapon Upgrades: decreases powergrid weapon requirements by 2% per level. Very important when trying to fit larger weapons.

Non-Gunnery Skills

There are some other skills, not in the gunnery section, that will help you use your guns more effectively.

Engineering Skills

Power Grid Management: Increases total powergrid, which is important because guns are power-intensive high slot modules.

Capacitor Systems Operation and Capacitor Management: A biggie for Laser and Hybrid gunnery pilots, as these skills increase available capacitor for guns and other active modules.

CPU Management: Increases total CPU capacity of any ship. The more CPU you have, the more CPU you have available for guns or any module.

Targeting Skills

Signature Analysis: Improves Scan Resolution. The faster you can lock on a target, the faster you can start killing.

Target Management: Increases number of targets that can be locked at one time. You want to have a queue of targets ready. Training this to 4 results in 6 active targets, which is easily enough in most circumstances.

Long Range Targeting: Sometimes you might find you can't target as far as your guns can shoot - train this skill to increase your targeting range.


  • Damage/ROF Modules

Gyrostabilizers, Heat Sinks, and Magnetic Field Stabilizers are low-slot modules that give you a bonus to damage and a bonus to rate of fire, which is super awesome. Remember the rate of fire will increase capacitor use for energy and hybrid turrets. They are all stacking penalized, so fitting more than say 3 or 4 is probably not worth it unless you have nothing else to put there. It's important to fit the right module for your guns! If you fit heat sinks on a ship with hybrid turrets, for example, they are completely pointless, and you end up looking really stupid on your inevitable loss-mail.

  • Tracking Enhancer

This is a low-slot module, that gives you bonuses to range, falloff, and tracking. Again stacking penalized, and this one works on all types of turret. Even though it doesn't directly increase your damage, because it improves your tracking (and, important for projectiles, falloff_ it will effectively increase your damage done in almost all situations. It's also used if you specifically need more range for a certain use - e.g. snipers.

One of the most commonly-asked questions in gunnery is this: should I fit another Tracking Enhancer or another Gyrostabilizer? Well firstly if you already have say 3 gyrostabilizers, fitting a 4th is not going to be very effective and so it might be better to fit a tracking enhancer.

Here's an example of the DPS differences at range, with a projectile turret. This is assuming everybody is stationary. gTUO1CY.png You can see the gyro buffs base damage, which means an increase at close range, but because the TE gives you extra falloff it increases your damage at range.

Here's another example: 0O4hYrh.png In this case the two targets are moving past each other, so angular velocity comes into play. The tracking enhancer provides a consistent damage increase at all ranges, whereas the gyrostabilizer only buffs damage in a small optimal range (but it is a big increase in that range).

The question is less critical of hybrid and laser turrets, that don't rely on falloff so much, but still important. In many cases, if you expect to be moving quite fast while shooting, a tracking enhancer will buff your damage a lot more consistently than a heat sink or magnetic field stabilizer. Fast moving ship or target? TEs are great, use in conjunction with gyros. Very slow or stationary ship or target? Load up on those gyros and get in range!

((you can make all these graphs in EFT, if anyone asks)

  • Tracking Computer

Mid-slot module, gives a range, falloff, and tracking bonus, and can be scripted. Scripting doubles a particular bonus (tracking or range/falloff), and negates the other.

TCs and TEs seem to do the same thing, so what's the difference? TCs use cap, and are mid slot modules for starters, and are pretty flexible because you can script them. More importantly, TCs give better base tracking bonuses and worse range bonuses. A tracking computer scripted for range will give the same optimal/falloff bonus as a tracking enhancer, but the TE will still give a tracking bonus. The tracking computer's base tracking bonus is better than the TE's, and can be doubled with a tracking script, which is just awesome. For range, TE, for tracking, TC.

Most people use TE's because low slots are easier to find when you want damage bonuses and mid-slots are at such a premium on pvp ships. Plus TEs have the better range bonus which is super for projectile users.

  • Remote Tracking Computer

Functionally identical to the Tracking Computer, except that it's activated on a friendly ship and gives the bonus to them, not you. Useful for support ships, sometimes. Often used in incursions on logistics (because some logis have a bonus to range and effectiveness), but it does have a short range. Not often used in PvP.

  • Target Painters

Increase the signature radius of a target ship, making it easier to hit a moving target. Actually used mostly for the benefit of missile ships, not turrets, because missile damage is directly affected by sig radius. Still useful for turrets though, sometimes used on PvP support frigates or cruisers (Minmatar Vigil or Bellicose).

  • Stasis Webifiers

Used to web/slow down a target, making it easier for guns to track the target. A really awesome module in PvP, especially solo or small gang work. Making a target 50 or 60% slower will vastly increase all applied DPS on it.


Rigs come in projectile, energy and hybrid types. As with gyrostabilizers, heat sinks & magnetic field stabilizers, don't fit wrong sort! The first two, the damage and rate of fire increasing rigs, are by far the most common. They all have the drawback of increasing the power grid required to fit turrets. You can reduce this drawback by training up Projectile Rigging (or Hybrid Rigging, or Energy Rigging, whichever one is relevant).

  • <size> <type> Collision Accelerator - Basic damage increasing rig: +10% damage.
  • <size> <type> Burst Aerator - Basic rate of fire increasing rig: +10% rate of fire. More effective than the collision accelerator because of math, but increases cap usage for hybrids & lasers.
  • <size> <type> Metastasis Adjuster : +15% tracking speed
  • <size> <type> Locus Coordinator : +15% optimal range
  • <size> <type> Ambit Extension : +15% falloff range
  • <size> <type> Discharge Elutriation : only relevant to hybrid & energy turrets, -20% to capacitor need
  • <size> Algid <type> Administrations Unit : only exist for hybrid & energy turrets, -10% to CPU required

Class Wrap-up

  • On the last page is probably everyone's favourite turret, the capital artillery turret used on the Naglfar dreadnought. It basically fires cars.

  • Thanks for attending this class!
    • I would appreciate any feedback from people on how to improve the class
  • Questions ?