|This is a syllabus for a class, intended primarily for the teaching staff.
Teachers should review all information for accuracy before preparing or presenting a class.
This is a syllabus for a class provided by EVE University. This section contains information about this class and its contents. General Information includes materials to create a proper class listing on the EVE University forum. Additional resources and teaching tips are listed under Notes for the Teacher.
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The EVE economy is dynamic and largely player-run. As a result, prices for goods vary significantly in different parts of New Eden, providing the enterprising capsuleer with the opportunity to make money by buying low in one location, transporting the goods to a different location with higher prices, and selling them there.
However, hauling goods around is fraught with dangers - from gankers, pirates, competitors and scammers, and from the most fearsome threat of all: the tax man.
In this class, you'll learn how to haul goods in EVE, safely and profitably.
- Duration: 01:00 [- 01:30, depending on whether you participate in the optional practical exercise]
- Location: Docked up safely in a station
- What is hauling?
- Establishing a hauler character or alt
- Essential hauling skills and equipment
- Capital requirements for hauling
- How to haul profitably
- How to haul safely
- Intro to advanced hauling
[* Practical exercise]
- Mumble registration and access - make sure you have Mumble sorted out and operational well before the class begins. Use this guide for set-up: http://wiki.eveuniversity.org/Mumble
- Access to the Class.E-UNI in-game chat channel
[* A ship with a cargo bay of at least 200 m3, for the optional practical exercise]
Additional information: This class is primarily lecture, followed by Q&A. [An optional practical exercise follows.]
Notes for the teacher
- Class.E-UNI chat channel, to receive questions and post relevant links
- Optional: An industrial ship, to lead the practical exercise if you have one
- Useful links to have open during this class:
- How to set up an alt hauler character: Creating an Alt Hauler
- How to haul profitably: Using EVE-Central to haul profitably
- Hauling ships guide: Industrial
- Level 4 hauling missions: Making Money with Hauling - Level 4 Cargo Missions
While this syllabus is fairly detailed, teachers should not just recite this document. Make sure to read it thoroughly, use its structure as a guide for the structure of your class, but make it your own - feel free to insert your own insights and experiences as you cover the key points.
Welcome to this class on Hauling 101! Over the next hour or so, we shall review what it takes to establish a hauler character, and to use them to haul profitably and safely.
(Instructor should then introduce himself or herself - covering experience level and background.)
We have a few ground rules for this class:
- This class will begin with a lecture, running about an hour. [We will then conduct a practical exercise, which should last about half an hour.]
- Feel free to ask any questions in the Class.E-UNI chat channel as we proceed - I will try to answer your questions as they come during the class. At the end, we'll open Mumble for any further questions or general discussion.
- You should be docked up safely in a station
- Please put your Mumble settings on "Push to Talk" if you have not already done so.
Everyone ready? OK, then - let's begin....
What is hauling?
First, let's define what we mean by hauling.
There are four kinds of hauling:
- Self-Supply - Carrying the ships and fittings you need for your own use to the place you need them. Not done for profit, but it can greatly reduce your costs. By far the most common kind of hauling, as almost everyone in the game does it.
- Speculator haulers - These are haulers that make their own trade runs. They are entrepreneurs that profit from the differences in selling and buying prices in different locations. They use their ISK to buy low, transport purchased goods, and then sell high to earn profits on the margins.
- Hired haulers - These are haulers that arrange trade runs with other players. For example, they can help to improve the effectiveness of mining operations by providing transport of ores to stations for refining, or who by moving refined minerals to other stations for sale. Alternatively, haulers can also accept courier contracts offered by players on the market. Hired haulers either get paid on a percentage of the operation haul, or on a flat fee basis for contracts.
- Courier Mission Runners - Not to be confused with courier contract runners, these are haulers that receive trade runs as missions from non-player characters in the game. Many NPC agents specialize in courier missions - paying for the transport of items to a particular location. Courier missions can be lucrative, paying rewards in ISK and Loyalty Points which can be used to acquire valuable faction items.
Getting into hauling is relatively simple. All you need is a character with a fairly low level of ship command and trade skills, and a suitable industrial ship.
Hauling may sound like an easy way to get rich in EVE - and in fact you can earn millions of ISK per hour of effort, if you do it correctly. This class will show you how you can haul effectively and profitably, and how to avoid many of the common mistakes that many new haulers can make.
Establishing a hauler character or alt
Many players set up a separate alternate character, typically called an "alt" in game parlance, to specialize in hauling. There are several advantages to this arrangement:
- You can and should keep the hauler character out of the UNI, allowing you to conduct hauling activities safely during wartime.
- You can focus your alt's training on hauling-related skills, allowing them to develop a high degree of competence quickly.
- If operating in a separate account, you can pair your hauler alt with your main character for mining ops or for hauling away salvage in missions, freeing your main character to focus on productive activities, like mining or killing NPC targets.
To set up a hauler alt in your main account, restart your EVE client, and then click on one of the blank boxes below your main character portrait. You are allowed up to three characters in your main account.
To set up a hauler alt in a separate account, you can either register a whole new account with CCP on the main EVE website, or you can create an alternate character in your main account, and then pay a small fee (US$20) to split off your alt into a new account later, if you wish.
A useful guide to setting up a hauler alt: Creating an Alt Hauler
What is the best race for your hauler? In the long run, it is not very significant, as any character can be trained to pilot any ship, given enough time. There are fans of each race that argue about the merits of their industrial designs, but in truth, you can be productive in just about any race's industrial ships.
In general, if you intend to use a character just for occasional hauling runs, as an alt in your main account, your best choice is Amarr, as the Bestower offers the biggest Tech I industrial ship capacity and expandability. If your intention is to establish a dedicated hauling character in a separate account, then your best choice is most likely Gallente, as that faction offers several specialty industrial hulls that can be quite useful for different types of hauling.
View this helpful guide on the strengths and weaknesses of various hauling craft, so you can make an informed choice about your hauling character's race: Hauling
Essential hauling skills and equipment
To get started as a hauler, the absolutely required skills you need are:
- Racial Industrial I
- Spaceship Command III
You should plan to train additional levels of Industrial skill to unlock access to more advanced vessels of that type.
Additional skills that are invaluable to a beginning hauler include:
- Cargo capacity expansion skills:
- Hull Upgrades II - needed for Expanded Cargohold II modules, to maximize your industrial's capacity.
- Mechanic III - needed for Expanded Cargohold II modules, and for Cargohold Optimization rigs.
- Jury Rigging III, Astronautics Rigging I - to fit Cargohold Optimization rigs.
- Ship piloting skills:
- Warp Drive Operation: Helps with long warps. Each skill level reduces the capacitor need of initiating warp by 10%.
- Spaceship Command: Reduces align time. 2% improved ship agility for all ships per skill level.
- Evasive Maneuvering: Increases ship agility and acceleration. 5% improved ship agility for all ships per skill level.
- Because you will most likely be filling your low slots with cargohold expansion modules, you will need to develop sufficient skills to enable you to shield tank your hauler's ship. Essential shield tanking skills include:
- Shield Management IV: 5% extra shields per level
- Shield Upgrades: 5% reduction in shield upgrade powergrid needs per level; level IV allows use of T2 shield extenders
- Engineering II & Tactical Shield Manipulation IV: Allows use of Adaptive Invulnerability Field II.
- Optional: Shield Operation III or IV: 5% reduction in shield recharge time per level; level IV allows use of T2 shield boosters, though their value to a hauler is limited at best.
- A note about tanking your industrial: in 2017, an industrial with over 15k EHP can survive an attack by a solo catalyst with good skills (the most common suicide ganking threat in highsec). However, gankers often work in teams. Your cargo may be scanned when you leave a trade hub, and if you are carrying high value goods you may get hit by a suicide ganking small gang. Those can even take down freighters. Don't expect CONCORD to save you!
- You will also need your hauler alt to exchange ISK and goods with your main character, and also to buy and sell items on the market. Therefore, you will need a modicum of trade and social skills:
- Social I and Contracting I - at a minimum, so you can execute contracts and speak to NPC agents
- Trade I - so you can set buy and sell orders
As you develop your hauler alt, you may want to invest in additional social and trade skills, so that you can speak to more agents and increase the number of orders, at lower costs. But these are all you need to get started and to be a functional hauler.
Your starting industrial ship should be optimized for hauling in high security space, with the following equipment and fitting:
- Low slots: Cargohold Expansion II modules - as many as you can fit. You may be tempted to also include a Damage Control module, so that you increase your resists and give you more time to escape an attack. In general, the trade-off of more tank for less cargo capacity is probably not worth it if you are trading in high-security space, to which most haulers will operate. To maximize your ISK, you need to be able to carry as much cargo as you can.
- Mid slots: Shield tank modules - at a minimum, a passive tank consisting of as many shield extenders as you can fit. You may also want to increase your resists with an Adaptive Invulnerability Field module - fit one of these for every two or three extender modules.
- High slots: Weapons are useless on an industrial - don't even try it. You may want to fit a tractor beam and salvager to help clean up wrecks or collect jetcans on mining operations, though that means training Survey III and Salvaging I skills.
- Rigs: Cargohold Optimization rigs - buy only the Tech I variety, as Tech II versions are ridiculously expensive.
Fittings for hauling in low-sec and 0.0 space are different, which we'll cover briefly later.
Hauling capital requirements
Starting a new hauler alt character is relatively easy, but being able to do useful ISK-producing activities also requires a sufficient amount of starting capital.
- Required: About 600K-1.5 million ISK to purchase a suitable industrial ship. Note: you will get a free starter industrial ship if you complete the Industry introductory career track - press F12, select "Career Agents", then "Industry".
- Required: About 5-15 million ISK for good Tech II ship fittings (cargohold expanders, shield extenders, etc.) - you can start with less expensive Tech I fittings to start, cutting this initial cost by more than half, and then upgrade as you can afford. Definitely use Tech I rigs - the Tech II rigs are hideously expensive and not worth the extra cost.
- Required but not urgent: About 1.5 million ISK for essential skillbooks - though these can be purchased as you need them over time. If your hauler character is in the UNI, you can acquire these at no cost from the Alpha hangar. Important: do not take stuff from the UNI hangar for characters outside of the UNI.
- Required: about 2 million or more ISK for buying goods for trade, if you want to become a speculative hauler, assuming that your initial hauls will be for common consumer or industry goods.
- Optional: about 10 million ISK for courier contract collateral - almost all player-created courier contracts on the market require a collateral amount, which is refunded when you've delivered the package and completed the contract. The most lucrative courier contracts are also the most risky, and therefore require commensurate amounts of collateral, but 10 million ISK should be enough to start with fairly safe hi-sec courier runs.
In short, you can start a successful hauler alt character with about 8-20 million ISK in capital. It is possible to start with less than this if you only intend to use your alt as a mining operation hauler or for NPC courier missions initially. But to maximize your ISK-earning potential, you should begin suitably funded to pursue the hauling activities that interest you most.
How to conduct speculative hauling profitably
- The hauler's most valuable resource for finding profitable trade routes is the EVE-Central Market Aggregator site: http://eve-central.com/home/. EVE-Central is a database of buying and selling prices in New Eden, submitted by players in the game. Register your hauler character there and download the free market data uploader. The current version (2.1) automatically uploads market data from your memory buffer, though you may have to do some tweaking to make sure that it is looking at the right file on your computer. See this link for the FAQ on how to configure the downloader properly: http://dev.eve-central.com/contribtastic/start
- Selecting and executing profitable hauls - This link describes a 12-step process that will enable any hauler to identify and execute the most profitable trades: Discover the Value of EVE-Central With a properly fitted industrial ship and a sufficient amount of capital, haulers can use this process to routinely generate as much as 3-5 million ISK per hour.
- Avoiding the tax trap. Every sale incurs a 2% sales tax, which can be reduced to 1% through the accounting skill. Buy/sell orders on the market incur an additional 3% sales tax, which can be reduced to 2% with perfect skills and standings. As a result, haulers must be sure that their profit margin is large enough to cover taxes, or they will actually lose money. (See https://support.eveonline.com/hc/en-us/articles/203218962-Broker-Fee-and-Sales-Tax)
Suicide gankers in high-sec and pirates in low-sec love to attack and destroy haulers, if they believe that they can make quick riches by acquiring your cargo. Here is an example of a killboard entry that illustrates this:
- A typical high-sec gank of a Bestower, losing 140M in cargo - note the anti-tanked fit: https://zkillboard.com/kill/59600909/
There are some practical things that you can do as a hauler, however, to minimize these dangers.
- Never go AFK - Being "away from keyboard" is death. Don't be lazy. Even in high-sec. Watch your overview like a hawk.
- Never autopilot - Never use autopilot to fly your ship, even in high-sec. When navigating to stargates, use the jump command instead, so your ship jumps as soon as you arrive. Be paranoid. There are gankers everywhere. Using the autopilot feature in the in-game map (the F10 key) is good practice for planning your routes - especially if you have the "Prefer Safer" option selected (F10, then Autopilot tab, then Settings tab). BUT never use autopilot to fly your ship.
- Understand your enemy - Most pilots that conduct suicide ganks are not doing it to be mean. They are doing it to make ISK. Understand the mind of your adversary, and you go a long way to defeat them. An excellent recording of how the mind of a suicide ganker works can be found here: class recording of "The Dark Side of EVE"
- Note: insurance is not paid on CONCORDed ships. This does not make you immune to ganking, however. If you are hauling 4 billion ISK worth of cargo, or more, you are definitely a prime ganking target. And remember, some people gank just for fun - even if you are carrying nothing.
- Fit a tank on your indy - Casual gankers are looking for easy targets. Don't be one.
- Use scouts - If you are carrying high-value cargo, consider using a fast frigate, shuttle, or covert ops scout to reconnoiter at least one system ahead. If you find high DPS battlecruisers or battleships lurking around a gate or in a system, consider taking a different route, or docking up to complete your hauling run on another day.
- Be aligned - If you are hauling for other players, such as on a mining op, always align your ship with a celestial. Keep that celestial on your overview control panel, and be ready to hit the warp button.
- Insure your ship - Insurance is your friend. It softens the blow after an "accident". Keep your insurance policy up to date, always. It's worth the investment.
- Here are some additional tips for how to survive as a hauler: http://k162space.wordpress.com/2010/02/28/hauling-how-not-to-die/
Hauling in Low-Sec and 0.0
- Beware of hauling in 0.0 and low-sec - hauling in 0.0 or even low-sec space (0.1-0.4 security status) is always risky. If you want to minimize potential losses, then stay in high security space for your trade runs in Tech I industrial ships, even if this means taking the long way around. Set your autopilot settings to safer routes. Know where the common piracy havens are located: Known pirate systems
- If, however, you find the thrill of hauling jobs in nullsec and low-sec too alluring to resist, then follow some simple fitting guidelines to minimize your risk:
- Put at least three Warp Core Stabilizers in your low slots to protect against being scrammed or warp disrupted. Note, however, that WCS modules will not protect you against Heavy Interdictors in null sec, as they can tackle anything if used properly.
- A strong shield tank is always required in any hauler, no matter where you are going. Fit an Invulnerability Field or two to increase shield resistances, and Shield Extenders to maximize shield hit points.
- Fit a Prototype Cloaking Device in a high slot, as it can give you the option of hiding in space if you escape an attack and then need to lay low for a while: http://www.eve-wiki.net/index.php?title=Cloaking_device
- If you are hauling in null sec, fit a Microwarpdrive (MWD), so you can "burn out" of bubbles.
- Rigs to consider when modifying your industrial for hauling in low-sec or 0.0:
- Low Friction Nozzle Joints I reduce align time by 11.7%: http://www.eve-wiki.net/index.php?title=Low_Friction_Nozzle_Joints. Agility is everything when trying to warp away from danger.
- You might also consider fitting a Core Defense Field Extender to improve the strength of shields by 15%. However, you do so at the expense of increasing your signature radius 10%, which makes you easier to target lock. Fit one of these only if you feel you truly need the extra shield hit points.
- Low and null sec hauling tactics
- Defeating gate camps: If you jump through a gate into low sec or null sec, and you find a camp of enemies surrounding you, do not panic: you have 60 seconds of cloaked protection. Use this time to examine the fleet size and composition. After assessing the situation, engage "warp to zero" to your target station, then quickly activate your defensive mods. If you have fit for fast alignment, you should be able to warp away before anyone can get a target lock on you. Even if they do manage to target you, your Warp Core Stabilizers will give you some protection from being scrammed or disrupted. And if they fire on you, you should have enough of a shield tank to take at least one volley of damage.
- Burning out of bubbles: If you are hauling in 0.0, you can get caught in warp disruption bubbles. If you are caught in a bubble, double click in a direction that is the shortest distance out of the bubble, and which is not on a line between you and any enemy tackler. Then immediately start your MWD and then your cloak. Once out of the bubble, warp to a celestial @ 50-100km (ideally a non-standard distance) or to a safe spot. Enemies won't be able to target you before you cloak, but they may have time to de-cloak you before you are out of the bubble. Therefore, you need as much speed as possible from that one MWD cycle, before the cloak turns it off.
- Docking up quickly: As you arrive at your station, engage your propulsion module, and then spam the dock command until you safely in station. After docking, check the Guests tab in station to see who is in there with you. Use Show Info on anyone there, to see if they have negative security status. These people are your biggest threats when you undock.
- Undocking in low-sec and 0.0: Leaving stations is the riskiest part of low-sec hauling. When you undock, you have 30 secs of invulnerability to targeting and attack so long as you do not align, or activate any modules. Use that time to make a quick assessment. If you don't like what you are seeing, then press Ctrl-Space to stop your ship, and then dock up. If you decide to continue, warp to zero to your gate or safe spot, and engage defensive mods. Your only real vulnerability is if a bad guy bumps you far enough away from station that you cannot dock.
- Use bookmarks - if you can use a cloaky ship, use it to create bookmarks at warp range (over 150km) in front of station exits, providing you with an instant undock. It's also good to create safe spots in systems that you intend to revisit, so you have a comfortable places to hide if necessary.
- Beware of pipes - successive low-sec or null-sec systems with only two gates are known as "pipes", and they can be very dangerous, as they are often camped. Study the star map before you make your hauling runs, so you are aware of these danger spots. And if you can scout them in advance with a cloaky covert ops ship, and make some bookmarks in safe spots there, that will give you some additional options when traveling through them.
- Pick a good time to haul - to minimize your risk, haul when the pirates are asleep, typically between 06:00 and 11:00 EVE time. You can see the times of the lowest numbers of players logged in here: http://www.eve-offline.net/?server=tranquility
Advanced hauling topics
- Carrying sensitive or high-value cargo
- A courier contract box alone will not protect your goods from being cargo scanned!
- If you put your goods in a secure container, and then make a courier contract with that container, then the items in the container will be "double wrapped", and protected from cargo scans
- Once upon a time, anything put into a "Corporation Hold" on an Orca was immune to cargo scans, and if the Orca was destroyed, anything in the "Corporation Hold" would not drop, thus making the Orca a popular ship for hauling. As of the Retribution update, this is no longer true. "Corporation Holds" have been replaced with "Fleet Holds", which are scannable, and will drop loot if destroyed.
- Cargo bays on Blockade Runners, however, are un-scannable. This sounds like good news, except that it now makes all blockade runners a tempting target for gankers willing to try their luck.
- In Empire space, carrying illegal goods (indicated with a skull-and-crossbones on the item icon) can get you in trouble with customs agents.
- Customs agents (not CONCORD, by the way) randomly scan ships going through gates, or sometimes at stations - the higher the security rating of the system, the higher the chance of being scanned.
- If a customs agent detects that you are carrying illegal items, they will send you a pop-up message, informing you that you are carrying illegal goods and instructing you to surrender them.
- If you say "yes", they will confiscate your illegal items, fine you, and you will take a substantial faction-standing loss.
- If you say "no", then you should attempt to quickly jump through and escape, as they may attack your ship. Whether or not you escape, they will fine you, and you will take a substantial faction-standing loss.
- The actual amount of the fine and standing loss depends on what illegal goods were discovered, the quantity discovered, and other factors.
- Cloaks and fast-fitted ships reduce the chance of being scanned, as does traveling in systems with lower security ratings, but it never eliminates it completely, unless you are in 0.0 null security space.
- Courier contracts - contracts to haul goods are available from other players.
- You can access these by selecting the Contracts button on your NeoCom, clicking the "Available Contracts" tab, then select "Entire Region" in the View field, and "Courier" in the Contract Type field, then click on the "Get Contracts" button.
- Some general rules for the wise courier contractor:
- Beware of 0.0 and low-sec - have a map, and avoid contracts that start, end or go through dangerous areas, unless you are properly fitted for the additional risk.
- Beware of pirates - avoid courier contracts that start, end or go through known piracy areas: Known pirate systems
- If the contract looks too good to be true, it's too good to be true - beware of contracts that pay an absurd reward for very little or no collateral, as they may be an attempt to lure you into a gank
- Be sure to have the "Exclude Unreachable" option selected when looking for courier contracts. You can select this by clicking in the area with "found X contracts". A set of options will appear. Make sure "Exclude Unreachable" is selected. This will make sure that you do not see contracts that start or end in a player-owned station to which you do not have access.
- Courier missions - Level 4 courier contracts are a safe and secure way to generate ISK quickly. This link describes how to make money effectively as a Level 4 courier mission runner: Making Money with Hauling - Level 4 Cargo Missions
- Advanced hauling ships: Hauling
- Specialized Industrial Ships
- Training the Gallente Industrial skill unlocks several specialty hauling ships, each with a dedicated cargo bay:
- Epithal, planetary commodities bay, useful for hauling goods from Planetary Interaction
- Kryos, mineral bay, useful for taking refined minerals from station to market, or from market for manufacturing
- Miasmos, ore bay, fantastic for supporting mining crews
- Training the Minmatar Industrial skill unlocks the Hoarder, which has a large dedicated bay for hauling ammunition and charges
- Training the Gallente Industrial skill unlocks several specialty hauling ships, each with a dedicated cargo bay:
- Covert Ops Frigates: don't forget the usefulness of these small, fast, cloaked ships for transporting tiny but high-value cargo, such as blueprint originals
- Blockade Runners: fast aligning ships that can fit covert ops cloaks, and therefore can warp while cloaked. The cargo bays of blockade runners are un-scannable by other players (but not by customs agents). Great for hauling valuable loads of under 10K cubic meters in low-sec and 0.0.
- Deep Space Transport: extra-tanked industrials, with good capacity - nice for hauling moderately valuable cargo - built-in +2 warp core stability
- Orcas: very handy for mining operations, and a darned good large-cargo hauler, though not as large as freighters. See this guide for more details on the Orca: Orca Guide
- Freighters: protected by their sheer bulk, very handy for carrying ships or other large-volume goods in high security space
- Jump Freighters: can use cynosural fields to jump into 0.0 and low sec space; the only way to go for shipping large quantities of goods into low security areas
- Specialized Industrial Ships
- Hauling corporations - There are a number of player corporations that specialize in hauling.
- The most well known of these is Red Frog Freight - for more info, see this link: https://forums.eveonline.com/default.aspx?g=posts&t=6491 - or check out their fee calculator, here: http://red-frog.org/jumps.php And for joining Red Frog Freight see here: https://sites.google.com/site/redfrogrecruiting/home/current-queue-and-your-status
- Another service is Push Industries (also known as PushX): https://forums.eveonline.com/default.aspx?g=posts&t=41058 - or get a quote from their website, here: http://www.pushx.net/
- These are good services if you need things to be moved in game, or if you are looking for a good corp for your hauler alt to join and make some ISK! (Or, to use as models for your own hauling corp!)
- Thanks for attending this class!
- I would appreciate any feedback from people on how to improve the class.
- If you liked the class, send me 1 ISK, and include any suggestions for improvement.
- If you have any constructive criticisms, those are welcome also - please send me an EVE mail with your suggestions.
- Good luck, and fly safe!